Posted: Juli 20, 2012 in PENDIDIKAN
Tag:, , , ,

Berikut adalah dua macam tenses dalam bahasa Inggris, yakni simple present, dan present continous. Tulisan ini berisi rangkuman, amati dengan baik dan coba renungkan yah..

1. Simple Present – Rangkuman


      affirmative       negative     question
I                              I am.              I am not.         Am I?
he/she/it             He is.            He is not.         Is he?
you/we/they    You are.      You are not.    Are you?


affirmative                                 negative                                            question
I/you/we/they      I have got. / I have.         I have not got. / I do not have.              Have I got? / Do I have?
he/she/it               He has got. / He has.         He has not got. / He does not have.       Has he got? / Does he have?


other verbs
   affirmative            negative                 question
I/you/we/they              I play.                 I do not play.          Do I play?
he/she/it                        He plays.            He does not play.    Does he play?

Exceptions in Spelling
Exception    Example
The verbs can, may, might, must remain the same in all forms. So don’t add s.    he can, she may, it must
Verbs ending in o or a sibilant (ch, sh, s, x) add es instead of s.    do – he does, wash – she washes
A final y after a consonant becomes ie before s. (but: don’t modify y after a vowel)    worry – he worries (but: play – he plays)

Short Forms
affirmative    negative
I am English. = I’m English.    I am not English. = I’m not English.
We are English.= We’re English.    We are not English. = We’re not / We aren’t English.
He is English. = He’s English.    He is not English. = He’s not / He isn’t English.
I have got a dog. = I’ve got a dog.    I have not got a dog. = I’ve not got a dog. / I haven’t got a dog.
He has got a dog. = He’s got a dog.    He has not got a dog. = He’s not got a dog. / He hasn’t got a dog.
I do not play tennis. = I don’t play tennis
He does not play tennis = He doesn’t play tennis.
Use    Example
action in the present taking place once, never or several times    Colin always plays soccer on Tuesdays.
actions in the present taking place one after another    She takes her bag and leaves.
facts (something is generally known to be true)    The sun sets in the west.
action set by a timetable or schedule    The train leaves at 9 pm.
verbs of possession, senses, emotions and mental activity    I love her.
Typical Signal Words
•    always
•    every …
•    often
•    normally
•    usually
•    sometimes
•    seldom
•    never
2. Present Progressive – Summary
affirmative        negative                       question
I                                 I am playing.    I am not playing.    Am I playing?
he, she, it             He is playing.    He is not playing.    Is he playing?
you, we, they    You are playing.    You are not playing.    Are you playing?
Exceptions in Spelling
Exeption    Example
silent e is dropped before ing (but: ee is not changed)    come – coming (but: agree – agreeing)
final consonant after short, stressed vowel is doubled    sit – sitting
final consonant l after vowel is always doubled (in British English)    travel – travelling
ie becomes y before ing    lie – lying
Short Forms
positiv                                                          negativ
I am playing. – I’m playing.    I am not playing. – I’m not playing.
He is playing. – He’s playing.    He is not playing. – He’s not playing. / He isn’t playing.
We are playing. – We’re playing.    We are not playing. – We’re not playing. /We aren’t playing.
Use    Example
actions taking place at the moment of speaking (now)    He is playing football.
arrangements for the near future    I’m going to the theatre tonight.
actions taking place only for a limited period of time    Jim is helping in his brother’s firm this week.
actions taking place around now (but not at the moment of speaking)    I’m studying for my exams.
development, changing situations    The population of China is rising very fast.
Typical Signal Words
•    at the moment
•    now / just now / right now
•    Listen!
•    Look!


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